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,ybU ^i^ Jb J i»^l j^it:^ o^t- 0^,^ ^S \^f}\ u^'^^^ 
^ ciL.15 l3y^ Oj^ D.N.A J^ J^i*-» ^j=r*^ ^^' O^ ^-^ 
U^ J ;-^U >>-l jli ID . iijl5 Jl t5:>>- SyU- J^ '*lj:> 0>^ 
^ ifUl dLiJbJl ol,~~;r Jj^i jV dlJi ^U j^ ^UJi^/l 
^IJL^I Jl ^i>. D.N.A oll:;>o l^lok^ij (,-Jrl Jl ^UJ.^/1 
JUL ^3>^ c^l J ^UjJI ^Ui: JLp Li-y'>. U cU:» ol^wo- 
j>xJl ii>: jUif ^j . d\hj^\S Ij^ > Vf ^l-i^l J> 
o_J cl^'^y >j^l *>^ jJl -^"^^ of ^V oj^ *^^*^' Oyv:i«^. 

J5 Oli ^i ^J . olii^Ll oJu j Co*JL^ v''j-^ Oljjia; i>wJ 'yi 



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: J_^ c:>>>-^l Jl iJ^I J^ '^ ^ Cj"^ 

;u>; J Jj ^^ ^ ^^^' J» ^' -'^ ^ ^' 

JiJi jjiij S^lj :;5lk!l oOa^t ^ olui . J^ ti^ OJ^J J=»^ 
.U:i ^^Nl UlJi;-! opLJ ,r^» > J^ -c^^^l ^'-^1 ^>=*^' 

6) A.I. Oparin, "Origin of Life», P. 137. 



^jULl ^UJl ^ iijy^ oju 0--J UiLl oU IJU J^ ^ ^j 

c »l^l oL^lj .UJI oL^I ^^;-^ ^Uo- ^ 4^y*t plkJl 
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j*^b ;i ji jju uik: i^^- jf. iju (U> jLJL. v^i jy^) a>. 

i^^Uj vail i>^ ^ J^- J^i ^^^- V i^JJl oJ^I Jj 

_i^ .^^1 JSLtil J^l^ j^ytllj ^^1 Ov.-)l. J^ 
f— ^' J 't.r^ ol ^ Ja : ...j' ^iJUiJl jf J-j^5^l iyf-,vS^I i-j^ 

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^ ijuixj Jit o-J sU-i ((ji^.*:^!)) ilL^ jt (-^ fjJ' ^1 r 
ojjl3 l^y. olS 1^ iia-- ii:>i^ sJi-J ^j ciU-> «j^» i3L-. 

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J* ixosr ii> J-^JtJ Jl ^il^l i) t^i>- ^^1 oUUiJi 
jjj a ^« , : ...,< ojj-,<aj L«L->-i jj (_$ j^ ~'-^ o^^viS^ (_«*J~ oULxjiJl eJUk 

. oLJ-l JLp C-i^ljJxJl oJUk j>i ijiUl 4JUJI ftjl^l C-JlJ (,6:>j;>-j^ 

J-^y Jjj t^ jjj Jit Jl ^iOaJl lJt)^l ia-t:j cO^ApLdl 

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Nj 4i»li. ^L J.*^. jl ^ J^lJ cO^A^Ij Ow-J.lj 0>li>UJLS- 

iijjdl (JaJl oJUfc Jt« tLUl ^r — io Oj^-ji; Ji-UJ JJJUJ *^ Ljl 
jl^,,«JU-.lj tOjUJi A.<JaJl j^ -JLaajo J^JL. Lj-,a*j «» 4l>-ljdlj- 

^_^ jt d^JUaJl)) ^ ixcA\ j^\ oLUjc. 433 Ji^ LfL**' 






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^ ^ .*L^Vl ^- ^1 -V a^ljJl v.yJ' cL^^^I x^ c-Jrl 

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^>.l^l ^ ^l^^l .1* ^ ^ ipb ^-yj^l ii.^ ^5^ 

oLi%Jl JlsLiL L^^i^ ^ ^^^1 ^^uLi olL^ ixj^- 
»-^ J^ ^ ^^1 ^j yJl <LJL- ^jc l-U "Peptid.. ^jj iiLjJl 
oLUUjI ^ oLwj ^Jl j^ ;ii:>J,| ^l_^Vlj Polypeptid _. oli%Jl 
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V-Vl >-l^ J-il :»^^l » jLi^ li* . JJUI ^^1 li* jp 



SOP <Ay\ iJL^ ijj oLJj jJi j^ idJbit ^L^l ^_^ ^jx^ L^..,i; 

*L^Vl L^l jl Jl "Yale ;«U-i, J Harold J. Morowits 

Ji-of jU dUj ^j c^;l>*. ^ oLJjjJl ^ U^ Yr5 Jl r}^. 
•y ty O' ') L^ <Sy^ Mycoplasma hominis H39ykj Lj^ 

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. ^\j^^ AtUjI V-^j ^^ u^^ 
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Proinsulin JjNl oJ^Nl ^^ JuL~J J>5j— ^*^' J:^' <J^ 'M^b 
LjJl ^ ^1 .L^i iJ J_^i ^^--k:^' J* : jLJj ' 0>V-^^J ^* 

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^. '^ ij^ jV dUi cU^i oJla I'li'^ jls:ji jisai :>^j 

CT* J^'^ ^JJJ tik^-Jl i-Vj^' Jli^'i/I ^ jCJu OJj^'^lj 

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. Lf?-blj i~^>«*yi j_^l>Vl <y^ j c^ji>.:l-Ij cJUjC— I 

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Jy iA-i'iU c-~»il ^tJl j^ iUa* (*?^L>Ji' "-^ «j' (_r^y*-J ~V 

. A;>>«.....a:Jl 

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. I j : l a .^l_^ cjLiJ Ljil jjjjjL:)! jj-ua:^ ^1 oL>JL! iu/T i««Jil ii^ii-l 
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si.^^ 1^ S^ ^^^ j^- ^^ ^1 ;JLJ^ jl ^yc^ - \ . 
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oi* jfj . JULl J ^j^\ ajL- [^ ^jb JSLl:j, l^^i; ^ j^- 
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o^_y o_^.y o^.^- oylij ^1 iJL" Jl -i^lj ^ J^ oj:^' J 
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\jk^ -M ^y^, ^j Js^ LUJ- Jb-lj ^^ Jl j^l J SayrjH 
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. Vr*Jl ^ji*^' ^'i er^^*^' jl (Dextro)D f_^ Jyj\ Js- 

^ _;^S'I jl J^L 0\PjJl jjJiA Jb-f jb»-j \i\i . ijli:^ ilJU-L J\pyJl 
^ o-jU^ o^Oi J^ I JLA juJa>- i^ J^l li* jlS'j.^Vl ^jJl 

o-^ i.*-4- ^iik. Siljl Jl j^^\ [jx^\ lil Ul ci.y.UH <^L^'^l 

. i~fu^ jj^ iJLJi.1 jli t JL>-lj ^ jj ■^>^^ 
*^.}^ cM ^-^ f' ^'^' J^ ^yr' ci^' •-^.-J^l ^jUJl jl 
"^ ■^>^J cr* (*^^I^J •«,>*c'l ^lj-^l» ^> cr* OyJJ^^I ^ 5-^lj 

oLJl ^U j U-^l Jl ki_yju^\ JlSLi'yi ii^l ^ IjUpI iiy>.j[\ 

J\ i^^l ^l^^/l ^ D ^_^ ^j\^\ ^^ J J^f ^1 j^ 
7»p— j::j L) j^lSUl oAa c~«li jl i>»-;dl cJLSo tL. j^LSLJl -ja s-IjjI ^--ixj 

J. o^UiJl oJla ^wiJ ^_^ ^1 .LLpI jVl ^^ (JLJI ^jJal^_ ^j 
l/^^l j^. 'y ^ ^LJ^\ ^ j^\ jJLJl ^jOi .^,-SUJl Ji. 

jl : UL' . cL^\l ^U ^jU^ UJaJl J jb^j^ - d ^>JIj L f-yJl 



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J-*' c^l J^^ 



:rvl ^1 ^\. 



J,-=rv,jU<a;^t jlj I J-".' 0>-:.V-'' J ^' -''-^-'-^ ^-^' *"^^ '-'^ 






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UjU lili . D ly ^>-Vl .^L^lj L ^> ^ (/o . ^^1) ^l^Vl 
^ o^lj ^> j^ Jl^l 0"^) \y^ > Y • ^ j_^. JIU pi, L.UI 
W>' lijL-i IJUj ■■ Y : > yk La*U- t • • \^y^ AJUI ^l^Vl 

.SU-I a3>o«-« ^ (_$^^/l v- Jl^t jwi; j LjiLlS" t« iLi-l IJLa j *iiyb 

tUipl j^l ^ jc^^ ^^JJl S.E.Bresler ^j^l lUJi cjl^l ^iJlj 

.li ^wi; ^^L ^UJI U151.I J ^j . Jb-I .^ jJLo "^ >J IJla 
J_^ ^j^ sU-l *j^ jup oIjo jJl la>. ojiUI ^iiiU-l 
SjiUlj iULtJl ^JUaJl ^ 4JUL- i>.-;J oJlS" l^L oUI^'Vl 

Aj^5cdl iLJ;-! dJla jl Jiu^; . . ! IkoLs.IJj'^I Jj^j . . . J>-l 



James F. Coppedge, "Evolution: Possible or impossible? P.67. (9) 

-ov- 



iLLi sLj 

m 

^ 0^1 ^^ jl btj Jiii ^ i ^j . ^iJL^I Ji> 0* Uj^ Jl(i^l 

oJiA ^ ^^ SyfcU jl.1 J\ ^b>^ ^1 . ^-A^ i^l a* J^-^' 

^;^-)^l l^ J*a;j »I>NI 

jl ^_,^^. ^ y^ ^ l>-^\ jy^ ^. <^\ Jl iiUil li* 

jl ^ .;;r JSj ;*iJ J^ jll^ .V- i*ia» J^J '^ J^ J^ ^^>^. 

j^j ^^Nl (^1 i*i^ y -ipL«: .l^>v J5L1. ^^:-^ o^ 
lib .^^1 ;*ia* ijt ^Ul ii'U JS^JiJ Nj ilfi^p j UupL-Jj l^^ 

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jj ^^ uu t5>-i ^aU d\^ ;jljj ^iyMjji ii_^vij 4t5>-i 

?AJU:fL ^y't^ ^ :L--JL dLUL ^Lill l,i5U. ^J^f^ cjyj^ iiwl 

4>i>,»w»j i»JL. ol^la>-_^ jl *Jai-J wi-Sj ?Lf»U t-iJL^ j^j*^! 

t^-iJi i^^ifjii ^yt^i ^uJi j_^, "ii^ . juJlI iJuk j oJuJi 

: jjLJl iyij jLail jLS^ ^ ^o~*i 

iU IjOm^ LjSy dUUi tUi>jJ^'j uvs;*«^lj ui>JjXilj 

J^^i ^ ^jU-.tj-^i; j-0 i^^j ii^i sJifc ^|ji>.i jl 

J,>f^l ^W^l ^tJjJl i*:»JL. j^ Xi^ 4:* JLA.J jl^L.'ilj 
SiU^I cij^ yVil 3>f ^ «Aeneid» _, *ajjA\j « JSJ j» 

^ ^[LJI^^i;!:; 
d\i^'i\ AjJb-' ^jU- Lf-^ jA oLJj^I ia^\ oj^ jli" liU 
,_^ jj— i^J i-SUl oVjUJil »jjk lU jil t jjiJU. l^ i>-j-L)l oJi^ 



(1<S -UOiSirth. .Oi^of Ute. P. ©2-133. 




Jpliy. A^Sl JL^I^I jJlii-l ^i o' J^ J-^ **^»^ **> ^^*^ 



♦ o^* 



lA^ -oAi*l! ^1^1 J. c Oyj^ ^' "^J -^'J -^ Oyj^ oj^' V^ 
(lip l^S^lj J^ ^ J\j ^J> j «^J^>' ^^^^ ^> ^^*^ 



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,j^\j *aij *i>ij ,.;-^i iSj^ i3LA •^ v^ /uu 14^1^ j^i ^ 

l^,^ ^ oli%Jl .,_/:J 4^^ t,.i^' iV" *^' ^cA^' 
.SyLp L-iJl jj-^j ^j^j (1^' <-y^ lT^ "-cr^' 

jlilj ^y-^l ^ J^Loi^-Jl Oh^ -^ ^^' ^ oUI_^l ,_^. 
ii\jjk^2i> ^s'^ v^L Jbo- p:JliJl SyU jlj . j'ill J^ JL-^^^I -^^^ 
i^ ju^ ^y; l^U l^Jip JL^ ^1 iwijNi U;/ Ui . W V^ 

iiL* jl^ li Nl -^ til J*^ ^ yr-^i jLJ^fl^ L5i L'l^ jl 
wdAiJL^I)) ^1 -uU Jila: li oil ^^f^-^d ..i;5o,<u:-p I'U ^^^^ 
jljjSUJJ U^ ^^j *,_^' jl c jl/ til <>• J^ 'M"' cr* i-j^l 
^Silil JLp "jUi l^ii^j p^l l-J^ 3t^ -l*i»^l C"*-^' 
^ j_^l ^ aJULI iiJUiil Jl^ ^>!l ,*ci»^. c?^ 'J^'^' <J' 
tl^JJl jp^, ^s^\ cJ^I j) ^-XaJI ^ SULI p^ oa>-jl jJl 
^ Ujyt j^^ jl JbN (cUUi JJwi vL-^*^' ii>r*5'j J^*^' 
wJaii SU-I ^^ iUl Jlp^^joi N^Vl jl ^ . \jy^\j j:^^^ 



IN 



jl fcLwJl iiJUaJl ip jl ^Jj»j U tSLi-l jLiL-.'V eLf« OjSJ t.l~>o 

^il^ Jl UU-I ^- oLjNI Jl ;5U^I ^j c iLDl Jl Sy^^Jl 
f-jilj elylj (v-JiL^-j o>jJlj jlilj o^^r*- t,'" V-"^ ^ ^IJUuj jl 

^jr*^ X> • ^rr■J^^ 4-Ub *Lac-I ^j Jijjj Jj>-jIj JjIj (. <>»:^lj 

jLp- Jl Oyil>-^lj jl^L ^ ^^' -""^ ^^ ' ^-' ^ y^^ 

c.L^I Jl oUvJil JIjpI J J^ J' - V'^lj .^''^jU^lj 
jLJNij J^l J$JJI Jl jUjNij .^A."' Jb>iJl Jl J.^lj 
^Jill jli . ^Nl jL^ Jl JikJij ./^ Jip Jl (!Oiij>Jl l-A*) 
^UA>-jij l^ji ^ L^ljl Ji ob-ULl oJLA ..a.r.-r^j 
^SU-I jA UUi-l ..(^l SjUI ^I .^A-iaJI (.1 tOX^I ^1 
*>^ ij^JaJl L.I (. As-lj Oyj^ tULJl ^_^ S^^rU- iiJUaJl jl ^-J^ LJj jOJ 
J ijLJl JuljiJl ijj^ c J L^N . iiJUaJl j» JJiil Ijwij ^ilic 

. 4.Jl»J JL?-N iUj<i*^l jik. *^i^ ^J JA ^ jJlj . j_^l 
•jA «.«:j>JI J O^ oLjiJl j_^li jl ^•^. '-J^' -^ ^ \cr^.3 

'• ^'•^- O^ -^ *• r«r--^j Oy^l J*- c!^ k>" t/* V>W— ^ 
OA>-jl L^lj c lg....i'i j^ -^^^J^ '^-'j^ **t:^' kjy'j^ "-^ ' («-L>«Jl («— Ljj 
^ijlyJl J5 L> L-i IJ^ ^f ! !l^-^ ^ sU-L ilJULl gjJl si* 
ol^JU; j^r~*r tji-J^' oy^' -oJL. i;l jjj- Oy^^, *^^ «J' 

oIa j_<w» (^JJl ^-A^l L^,>r— ^ • • • • V-^ ^' Jl,JcL>-l obLijIj 



. (^^1) Vj-^J' 'IJ^Nl Jl,-i-L 



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JU Jj» JUJ.I j^ jU i^,j_,..ad) jL^ *-*-^ *:L^ Jlji» jjJl y_ 1 
Oi«Jl ,<.. > ., < i*t j *L«ji ^j Jjlil /.^ jl -j^-jcJI j^^ jl- ((jL*t J-f 
jULyuU 'y ^j ii\i\ ^yu jlj c U-Ut Jy^^^-jl^ JJiil ^ ^1 
^J jiaJt -^yj t ^«-»— J 'y ^_^j *-« — II JL>-y jlj.oy^LJl oU^JL>«il 
. oLs- jjj ^j 5LJ-I JL>-yj t^^SU; ^ ^j j^5^l -A>-yj t jlaJ ^/ 

. JLaJI j^ U-bi <-<Ul Jbjl jlj J^l j^p 

< Ja*3I j^ o-jj JU |.*>LJI Up ^1^1 JLfP J j^j-iil jl5 -Li) 

Up jIp ^^Ul t j^l jvwiJl j_^. jl Ij-U^lj \j^j ^\ ^Ji.^>^ 

.SjJwaJl ^t^^\ jy.Ssj *li (^iJlyfc<ii^l (|.*>LJl -uU) j*^!^! 

Sjlil jl I^JLj IjJLijo ^ Sl^l |»^jd»/ jj^^Uil j_^j_^l L.I 

J L4*ijj SU-I JUL ^- USjAiJij (JLJI j^ .iLU j^l Hi ^1 



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J iijL.'V kJ^J «^Jj'^ *i^ uy ^J^^ o^*^ "^^ ^• . -' < 
L.I . »L>.Vl oU-U- k\>c^\ p. iijUN <!>; ^.-^ j>JI jl 
jjjb jU i:i»jJI o^jJ^I lit: *U>-NI oU-U ^LiL ^UJI iix^l 
Jjy- c^l ^'1^1 oU-U- pJ*5^- ^ ^1 oljJJl jl lif *«c»*r^' 

i5:^Jl ^j 4 JJUi Jbu Ui> jly^. ^j-y'Ua3lj ikill jU 4iyli»j 
JU- j_^U 4«uio- ii; (l,>VriaJl ^U^^/ll jl L$f t V" l>-^J 

. lOi^-UaJI j^t -^J ^J dOi^-UaJll 

aL. ^^ i^J J^ Jb ^ 4-U^ *l^^/ i-^>Jl oAa «^_^«ciJl 



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i«i v^LUl Aj^^kJl aJ-ji tl_^l j iiLo ijJi A,*^ JJ^^ ^.J^ f-y^ 

j^ JL 'y -of c..a..^:5l pJ c((,y^l w^Uo'yU -! ilf-il i«ii)l •JUfc 

jjj tL?- I^lj K(oyilaJl)) 0^;^ 0.>-^ iJl^j ti^l oJ^ C-^ oJ^li 

.^L-Nl l-iu cL-jN oNjUil ^$yi ^U i'L. a;uj .^L-'^l »LJLJl 

Jj^ J^ »LJ-' *j-i-j yv-~ijj T-UaiI jiJal-J ^1 Ouljilt ^_jip j_ji*jlj 
;.^ J JL^ J^ ^ ^1 ;I^Vl)) :Jll»i ^ v'j^r*' "^^ '-^ 

; ^1 ^1^1)1 ji (ij>Ji ;j>. J u.j^>5Ni -u^ui)) :ji ((j>Ji 

. ;iyL-( oJla ^ L. ^y_ jl ^^-..^ i^t jljf IjIj .^,kJLJ oaU J5^j 

; ^1 ^l^lj ^^\^\ Jl O^ ij>Jl oJUo J JUy ^-dJ ^J J^ fl ^1 

, o^ L^' jj-^ijy ^1 ^^Ij^i y r^'j^' .UjUJij Ujl^l J^ 
ilL-il jl ai>jj/ jUa^ ojJc- ^_yU ^ ^ Ji« J-Ui J p4^-<j 
J oljJc- JU'^AJ ^_$j— J-j (Jii (((t-p ^)) ^_5»UI jl il tC~fXil 

! !^ M iaii « jLa?-)) 
!((A.4-p yvP ?3^'^ 3^ !((AjjjL5 JJLw«))J ^^^^.aii iiL* jl5 jl ji-j; IJL«j 

! ! ((CjjJJIj 4-j*IaiJl» i?-J-i C>. ;- ~ '5 '[ Aj^^JflJ i; — Jb 
t L« iJil J^j «^ : IJb;- ^—i/' 9y J» ij^l^ ^L«l iJl ii-ii-lj 
oJLA jU tt^ J5 jJU cy.JLiJl ^UJj aJUw— 4Jt)l ^ JLfJtJ jj^l 

-"10- 




jl t j^jii;^ Ujlpj t|JL*Jl ^_^U c^ tJ^i J\ -J_^JLiNl 
: Ojjl^ J^ . 5^^l aX^ t.^ ^ j^^ 'J>'j^ Uxp *^jly 



jL~ ^j .u^UJl^ii-. V,— x:^. |1, ,jj_i; iljUj v-i>y» i^/srlJ' v'-^'^'* (^^) 
^ il^ u^- jl L jj ol^l JiSj : oU. ^^- jL IJU jjjij Jy JU ^^Ll 

0^. <oUi/ v_j-u *;f jiyiVi (.1^1 jjU ^^iJi ^iiiyi j^i uV . *_i; j^jJi 

Js. j^UJl iu» .U>L jy_;:j L* jj^li, . 4;t.l^ ^jjl^l J>^j>\ ^yb^l ^ 
j*> '^i j (J-JI c^- >&. jl j>> i,^,«_J»Jl ^jUiVli y»j 4*ai i^JJI «-l^l 



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^1 o/^i siU; c 4:~^ Ak>- ^jj 'M 3j)Je. oj^\ jl i/^ 

^ (, jv5 v^lJ::5l AJt jjjl^ <i.^j (JJJI ((^^...ialt w;Uo'^i» jt 

Jij . Ulj>- J>>-jil :>JoJl L^ j^^^ jy»i j'j *• Vt^ J-*^ ^' ((^^ ^ ..ia. l l 
jl v_i5tjU-u9^l j^ Sj^ jlJlpI oli flijlj oIjL-.>«j LuJI jl J-«« 
^ Laj^^^^ *L->-^' 'j-i-j ^rf:^ y'—^J r'-^' !>*■ •^'^ J>^' ^i^?^ 
iLj^ (.jJLJ ^rwJj ^ 0^^>*P jjJl j^jJaJl *J^^ ^\fiA jjl .^Vl AjIjU 
U (jl k 4-;>-lJl eJu«. "y^jl IJ^,-~aj" jl aK j_^l j^-fr J'^ SJL>-lj Jyjj^ 

^•15 ia-^l *jJl; ^w^- l.i*((JUv u;Ull J^ / ^i jl^Vb l^-U ^>JLla; 

(Olj^Jb jL ^^j yjl iij >- JLinj i_J »Aj IjLahj ^iJULuj i^JJ'^ k ^«>- 
vlUi J LjJl r^cs>J ^\ j^l ^j^k^ ol^ jJip jj--aJ Jc>»j LJli (. ol^l 

....^\^\^ J\ 

IJLft ^_^ A^Uil ljJh:S\ eJLft jUj JU ,Jb»»P \)ix) ^Jtk^ jVlj 

. %is ((oyilaJl)i y y^y ^,A>oi::J (^1 t ^'jJ' ^^*^' 



LJ.s<a?- iJ-l CjLjISJI Jy oli_jyiJl jl j^paJl 4j^ ^"^ 

^y^ . D.N. A ol^ J Jva>i jJl oljwuJl ^ •.lji^\} 
liU cVb>" oU-aU iiiUl oUj--^j^l J Sj^^I D.N.A 

^jJ6 ,lj\j^\ J\}\ ,^\ lj^\ J\j\ v^t i^JiNl Jl C-^yu- 



(13)1 
P63 



) Francis Darwin (Ed), -The Authobiography of Charles Dan*»in and Selected Letters- 
P6 

-•\v- 



«~.uft3 eyUaJl iSyt J — >w jl aJjX; jsl . . . . i>*-:Jl eijk ,j~^ /«J>^ 

Super Sonic Oj-a)I iPj— W^j— ti^ ^^' P>Jl ^ 
L^li t Jj^/I Jj-^l J U/i J-^ jji t D.N.A obyr Ul 
^ J*5lj jiapI Jj t Sy'lUJ iJyt ^$1 j^ Lis JLipl ^ t Ls^- .iUU 

<^U3I ^1} ^y. *iui ,;Jl^ jUI J\ VI ^jj, V ob^l 
Ij (. >>JlI j f-L«-i*yi ^1 vijly^ s_dj ( drosophilia melanogaster) 
i^U ^L. j ^_^ LJUop- Jj t i^UJl w-Li) j^ I J^-b- Lp»; i^wjJl ^^ 
j^ jj i-j*>V:;>-l «^ t e^JL« r-l-^ (^-5 •. 4.>«-^l J'^^j*^ >. i^l >_a.;.«.^ 

jy~^ *Ju^ j^ oSL ^_^ Jj^ J=»-^ <=rL>- t^l j^ ^^j 
^_^ Vj JL*: V :U3l Jb>j LJ*y . ol>iaJL *L^Vl iU J oLi^l:^^/! 
is^ JU-I l^iSLi Jb:-L' LUI_^ iiyrj!i.\ cL^'yi ^j :>L^I jl ^^ 

. L^ oil aJIj.^ ajjU- 
: "^ J«Jl JL^'U 

jjfc t^ ^-j'yi <„-> O^ji^l oVi ^_^ -J ^_ys.a^I ti-J^' cM' 'j' 

IjU .jJL*Jl v^U y, ^j")i\ ^Jx^ ^ ^_^l^- jjl olyJ-l ^1 

-•\A- 



l^lyLi U c^^' <Ij^ a;^u>iJ \^^ jy^ jJall j^l j^ ji LJU- 
(JopV yf ^^1 iiLfc ^_ ^JU jj^l aJu OjJaJj 0J3I ijli V';^' 
oJA j'y ^j . J^l JLP ;,.^:>J| j.lJii ybj , i«_JaJ' J ^\^\ cliii 

^M' (^-*:^ i^^ jt> JU .^Ul' o^"^' .U^'yij jL.c^::^'^! 

t^*- >>'-*J ^' fc aIa Jllj ij^AjIl jy^L ^ -(Lk^J i^yLj kJiSj 

jj^\ ^jJiL, >.ia.-,.J ^i' j! . -Ip- ^^ cJJb [^ tj_^iaJ' ^!^ I-*J2 ^' 

^JJi Ul tljLc %.L5o. U..*:^^ dJJjb ^j5U ..SjiJbc^ oU-j^ 

ol__;jL!Jl oJA ^_jj ^jjl j^ : i^^ ^ »J_>A_~- Jj_i N jv^-lj I. aJIjjJI 
^; ^«^*i>J.I Iju Jl- JI ^^3. ^JJl jAJd! J5:jL)l I JL^ 

. jLlSI IJu J ioy^ oIjuUl* U 0^1 Sjo^Vl 
^jjt (( Parasol J^^ljU Jl ^ju J«JI j^ «^ J^ jl 

^> J l^>^ (J ,^^>}\ -uJL. U Jl l^ js^ IJL^ Jljj^^l 
iiiiUIl ^_^ jl . al* j^l iJU^ J idJi ;JLw. jJLa ^^j . i^U- 

t pYe 'ej\j>- i>-ji J J y.l • ly^J <C-j<» ^ijis-j J Jtjj^/I «JL* J*. 
oLpI^ ii^ J*Jl jl ^J^ojjt, 'oj\j^\ ^j:, Jp l^[,....][ ^ ^j 



(jljjt ^«-»jr»j J-*Jl fj^i'r'^ -^j^ '^jS^^ •-*^ <j^ *i/r^^r^ J*^ 



jJlij Jl (^JL^- jlj t ^IkJl IJuk jL. *,yL:j jl Ijb-lj L*5l. I JUJL. 
^>. ^\^^\ od oLjVI V ^Ic^^l i^JJl cJ^I J c iplj>)l J^^l 

j Mj t((AiJUJlB J JlyJl IJUk ^\y~ Jl>J jl ^|^5Uj N \^ 

J Li jl dOlyiWli J »Jb»»J jl LjiUj V dUiS" t J-kJl lii^^ir^l 
(^iJl J^l jl ol^;;f«>dLl .^^>y cjlJI Jii . ^LoJ^yij JiJl Sy'b 

^ jjiiJ a» J^l jL Uij, J->uJll L^y jl ^^j . UU i^^l 

Mj c^jdl ^1^1 J^l ^^^\ ^Uul ^.k.... Mj . -u-^j J*JI 
. J*JI ^^1 ^V'y SJbJUJi oU»Ua::^'yi ^U;! 



-V^- 



^j^ jjjb Aj^^ j|v^ jl ^ '^-JjJ . »,>i^l l^lyoj jjiaJl ij^;iaJ (3^j 

*y ui^ .^j>H\ ;-JLJi oL>ji yu- jL. i;>^ii Jl «>^...,..ii)> 

J_^l Jb«jj tLp^ <*^jA« V^ La ((jjiaJlj _i tii^^l «Jla <y:J 
jl ^Jh jl Lj^_ "^j U «<)it)i jp d^L <i^' f-V Jjia^ Jr-^l 
J*5U»I j jjjjjl. H^ ^\^^^Cj ^j <kJi^\ «Jl^ Ojijju J^jjJaJl 

ij^^JiJl Ol^ JL- A-k:-^ Nj t Lpl'-ksol jXj aJj^I ^;^j 

S^l oJiA ^ ,>-.:..,T i^ <,\ jt U ^^, JUJij JaaII ;*^t ^Ul 

. ^_^*>^^/ij iiU>-*i/i Uj2-vA* j^ 

. JJjJI IJLa Jt« ^JLi. jl Jb-I ^ku^. 
. JJi Jl A^Ji, ^^j^\ i,^ Jp «JJjJIb jUrti^-l SjLjy i^l 
jl J.*::>»il y jl jjjj^^l Jji oNljJ^-'^l oLUj^ Jp I:)L:;^Ij 
1 L:^j . <Cw- JjJl« ajU J^A>- ^jAh j^\^ jA Ji ^^jIpj,»-JiI j^^ 
Jp Lfwi; o^Hji>-'^l oLUj^ ji> j,^ Jb-lj t^l jVl js^ <_»jL^ 

Jrr* iJ (M^' "-^ '''Ty^^ J^ (.5^ '-^ i>*J '•<'0>!j^j^»r^' «-j-i-l)) 
JS J apLJI ._^I_^I ^I jliu j_^;dL ^ . ^.> oLJ"^ ^^ 
l|il jjJi:>j Ujup (»JhJUp J».i».:....J i^^L^I oL.L-J-1 ^i>«i t <-!->« 

i-.LJl ^U J Ly. AiiUa: tiJUl ii/Jl IJLa jL. jl . 3^'^\ Jp 

. j_^l '<i^_ UJLo. f^j-^jll j_^ UXp JLJI i»-L- J IjJb OiUaJ 
(14) Nigel CaWer, «The Ute Game,» P. 90. 

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Jl tii>- ^/ -olyikJl ^1 [^ jy^_ ji\j- iMj^^l ol>i 
Jlj ;>oJl Jl <. ^,^j ^^ J, ,^| ^-Lsai ^^ j^ts:; 
ji l::^j (,5a;>-lj iiiy^L^i j\ j\^,^ ^..^^ ka,-,; aj S^'LU jl . o^l 
^Sj^-^j '^y j^ J\ ^i\ SyU ^ J tL^ jl oVi ^^ JALiJ 
Oil ^^ ^US J v^l .LL>.'i/l jl juUi ^ l^li. cSy^UaJl viJUL- 
^■^ "^ c5^l ^^ « j*j c oljiw ^UJjIj ^bs:jl viUi J*ISj Jl 

: ^0^1 J_^. il . l^ i^LJl Nl jjij>ill 

j^. u^t- jii , ;juiii ob^i ^^ s^ oi,^- cjjb- jl] 

jl jj^ jji^_ Ua;:p <J j_^ ^^jjl ^bJi Ji j_^^^_ 'yj 
jl c^Uai^l .i_>o iJb- ;ui^ vUl5 Ir' -J^ "^ ^U't J ol>Ul 
. Ul^ UU UjaLl; ^I aJ.1 oUl^ai ^ JJUI jjojl IJLa U ^^j 
^ j-^ .LUI Ll ^^^ ^ s^l jl tdUi J^ ^ i^'^lj 
jl x"^ ,^U jl^ J\ u>^\j ji^ j_^^_ ^ ^, ^^^ 
c^i^jJl SjjjJl ^Uij) Juu^j j^ JS^j^j cijUljJl oJUpI ^Jco- 
j^V^il JIa^.Njc(jJI . . . . ^UlJI JSLi ,^^.J;JI ^Ik 
• • • jl^lj o^Jlj i*-^"^! : Jt* LiU I45JL. ^..|i 5XJ^ *Upt 

Oi:*: ^ ia. - >.J t-jLSj ?oL>-lJ-l eJL* ,Jv.t; S^iiiJl . Vn' ■ 4 J^ > . .Jl 
J^ i-45 iaJ.;t ^j^al^- ,^j ?jUdlj Jt^Jlj o^"^! .JLa JSLi 

jl 0*. tl^JLp ^1^1 jLjJl ^^j .iJjL.'^ iijii J\ Si^i Jl 
1^ > : . fl ./ »l t Sj^i .-u J l^j nJ^ JU- c...aJ>jj cJLX o* cJl5 

"Jl'.."!. 



^^^ »Jal~j l^li^j ol^ptJ-l f^^;^ ^J^J^ ci^' oULJl jl] 

oi^ *^Ja; — ; 4 — aJ cJ_pl Jj . aj^i — II ,ja*j_ jl ijjl^^^l jl^l 
oL-Ul oJu ^ Lf-^l Jid^ iU5^l J^l jUI oI^-J-i 

f^L^ ^J^ tlt~^ 1<J jjljdl J_^ ^_^- ol^^lj oL'LJl 
l^liJj ol^^l oii Ig—iJ ^^- UjjJL JiJ ol^^l jUjVl 

JJr ^ Jj^ ^»/^ Ul^^c^l Jl ^1 ^'15^1! ^b4 jjl cUaNI 
OJ^j Ujj^j . tL^^'l ^^ oJb^ {-l^l j^^ Jl ^J:)y_ Lc vlJ^I 

J^ Jl Cjjia.^\/iiJ^\ ,^ y-y>. n^j J l^ a.; ojJ-l jjiaJl <ij^ 

oUvaJI Dl a_^l oJla ^^- L^j, O-U-l J^ iJjUN i;^ ^L. 

otAildl ^5 ^.ojJi ^ I JiOb ^^ ^;i5Gl oU-U- i-jj^l sjuoJ-i 

^\ il . oL-Ul Jlj ol^l Jl jIUl ^iS'iJl iJiA ^L-1 ^ Ll. 
*jUa^ Jl c^\jJJ~\ ola~o ,1:.^ jlp ^li4 jl — ;Nl jl <.Li>- L;/^ 

(It) ^ ^LJi jj_^i (^■^l 



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(rovebeetles^ ^ ;^ ^ U*^ ^i ^ JlUS> .o^Ul 
(*^'j • • • -uh^^* il;i*'j-* 2~»^ r^j ^t -Oc^xjs olens) 

t J^l Oj-. Jl J^^:.^ jji'Ml ^jiJUfc J-Jo S^Jii-l «JLa -^ 

oIaj . L^ lyif ^ J^l cw J:.^JL. ^Ul i^^l ^jbLl JUi::^! 

^ LjJai^j tljOJl j^ ijas If^k, O^ j^ J^^Lj-Ip C^Ij ^jU-I 

il.-vi^^j ^Z- j^i:^. ^/^ *MI IJIA ^jU-l JjJuo jl Uj i^j'Vl 

il i^jUJJ jliJi *lj^l j^.JLio SyiJ-l ^ji: jj .IJL:^ «j_^ J_^ 

li* sj-y t LjL* *lji jlj^- jL-jLp iiL* JL>-j; (i.-;^ 1 1^ j^_ aW 
IIa ^jU-I j4; jl (^ t ^_^Lill j^^l w»U- ^lUL^. -bl »ljjj| 
.i^A^Ju ^_Jj tsytj-l oUi ilL^ A^jSi Jc^ ^ oly ^/>-,*ljjJI 
-uPy i^AJl jini Jlj t J^ljJl J[ L^__, ,4JU. l^JL^ cl^^l 

•i* jl ... J*JU 5^1 Jj y, is^J^S oi^ ^UJI J^ jl 

*ljaJ i^jl^l ^^1 Jl J^^^ ^ aJ'V dUi .•l^JJl ^ ^j^\ 

lAy^ a*Jl j,-^ ijyc %\ ^ tUuJl j,-->- ^j wj^l ^«y»y>. 

gfi:i^Dl J^l ^JjiSI SjW-j^I |J* Jl i>.U-l^-^' tij^ 






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U^ -^^,^,.^1 ^Uui-yi .0^ ^ i^.u. ^.m^ oj^b ^> 

^u^Ni c.^^ aJ^ jUa, u j^_ ^ /llu l^ i^_^ 

>-Vlj .^Vl ^>*JI l^^i^ ^_^ ,ij^|^ ^,^1 ^^ ^^ 



(17) Charles Darwin, «The Origin of Species» P.132. 

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•U?-Vi jLw» ju ii^^i SJ^^^l jj^i ^L-.i cJir 1^] 

^J> Jj«^ Jl ^.VJI J iJ^J^ j}^ ^ ^\jJci\ .Jul SJLill 

oil . J*i~-. I iU jvi^j, jt ^^JiL-u N -oli c^L-^^l IIaj .^Uil IIa 

jlj^^;wcJl IIa ^ ;iliUll ^_^_ ^ J,LJ| ;wijJl J^ Jvijl 

oJlS" jl iui . J^iLJ.1 J ^i ^wJ jLiu-lj jLkJ^ U-U? j_^_ 

W^ fAr- ciJJ' JxJij jodi jlj t/0« V~^ ^jjJaj' ui^ ^\^ 

oIa -IjJj^I j2-*^ |J /o ^ ^1 5tU5^l oJuoj A......-JI «!* OjJj jl ^_^ 

J j_^- jl ^ ol^l jl jjl JJlS^j . . . ./oY ^1 StUSGl 

lj^ ij -»>7*j Jjjwi' J:j-i^ IJLJ tjyca t_»_U(> ^pjj.sj^lj i«Uiw-i 
. ^yUaJl ^lio^l i^ ^yc: jl JU ^ Jyjl jli c ^_^l 
iJU^i^l Jl jyl3,iJJiA\ ^1 ^ iJU-l UjUjLc. jL ^p IIa 
^U^ AiU»L LJ bl ":>\l*i t i^:iaJlj aJLJUaII oI J^Jdl ojj* Jio t^yj 
J-.a>,J Jii (, 6-U Jju j_$y^l i*iai ^ k^jjjA JOu KJL. 1^ tjj^lj Jl 

U:>jf jl U^ dJUi t_^_:>l^ iy_^- Uj^j ^,;u: jl j5Uj ^ oUU^I 
oLiUi'^l «!* *^ c5yr^ o\ IJU- jU< J-^f jj^lj jL^ JLp Jj-^I 

L^^-^'j^' JU^ J al^-i-*^ La Jr^ iljb*.^ L»i liLi/'i aj cJjJl J 

J J^Xi U jU^ t jjjiAJ ^y^JaJl ^L^^l jli tpL^^I JL^f 

— — m. 

.(T'l-T.r) ,^. J^UljO^lpA) 

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ol^lj 0*^0^1 ^yx^i. j^j li5Uj ,^'^><! |JL>L. hx: Jy jl Jl 
. ,j^\ .-^Uo^/I i^ ^ -<u>ij cJ^I J SjUiJl ^j- sjuiii ^ 

^j-^^l IIa ^wi; ^Iku-I 4jl jjjb pj»y ^L^l iL^I ;_^_ 

r^ j^ v*^ ^^ ^1 ou^i ;ji>^j ;ju» Jl c ii^LJi oj^. 

M S>^l oU^ll J\ i_JL yLp ^LJi j^l J ^1 jisai 
~uir*r^l Cy Ai^^U^ ^ jb ^i J 4jLi- jjjb jLi I JU c UU 
J SUL^ ^ Jf-yf 4jtSj aJjLJj t ijfcLi^ i^V^ M-^jil I j> cy'l^ 

! iJjij el JJ t e_^...,a." 

^^ki-j. jLJ'i/l jl If^ , i_^ <^ljy^' Jl i^-b- iiU .- J ] 

^1 ;a^i jii ,;«jI=uj i^t^^ oij^jd s^^*:uJ.i oiiU'^i 

^"\p\ '^l^j A^ .^1 J^ ^j^- , jLJ-ill 450^ 

dUi «;k^l ol^wdU oJl5 bl 1^ |JU 5^ ^ Uy^j jil 
. 'y (.1 ;l»L^ cUJi J^ ^*^k:_; 4\, kll oJl5 bl l^j c SXli ij 

OU^I oUU c j^l Jj^ jjjb J^ j^ IjdS j)y\ OyJJ AiJ 

(TrT) ,^. J^UljA^I (>^) 

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MotOO ljj-*c^ >•>* J^y 1^^' oUL-p- > — w->j (. ((4ia... »J l 

^ oJj>-lj aL^ ^ 0>-^ ("-^ J^ J-V Jj-v^^ *— ~?r Kimura 

J.B.Sanderson (^^ni-^A^Y) JjJU j-j-i^L- jj^j^ 
SJL^Ij Al,;;r 6jlJLi« ^' J^ ;.■>•:.,.. .. jL-o'yi J^ jU Haldane 

oL'^- j>Jl ;.>; ^L;^ l^^^ycJaJl ^U^^l ^^-^ cjL-o^l 

"CojJ^ C-il^r-JcJl JLc- -i-j jt-iajl c^I>Cj^/I jl Jfji ^^ if^ 

>_oj./7Tj ,^J;ji>cJ (^ii^ J <Jli -<U~AJ OJjJl (J ajl./i)l jf'i" i-ijljJJ' 

ISsjJU J-*-»J OilyiiaJl jl ^ycS . . . L>xX~il J>jkjj . jjjb ^ij 

ojl:>-l tUaPl ^1 LJu.-j "y <;l IJla ^^^jt- jU. j_^jjkJl 4j Jji, ^JJl 

jl ti' cSjbr'yi jl iikxJl oJUo ^li- ^^«:riaJl ^Li^^l ^UaP^y v^' 
7x~s^l tjjL:ll Aj^^laJ ^L-Ml j^IpI (_$ JJl t ^_y H .>.Ja. l l ^-;l>»lJ^/l /*^^^ 

. 4j JaJl oJLa ^...a.'..l *>\jli U^^jLo 

: jv-g—jjjl Oiijj^*^' i^lj^L 

. <:Ja-.j iUi :.I-U^L ol_^ikJl t5^ jl JL. "y - > 
"uS^ T^^y jlj t JbJiJi jl./a:<L 0'ly\JcJl oJLa Lo.iC — j jl -b jr - Y 
4jU<aJl cl^r-JcJl ^i*-j t oJuill jS' Oil^^J^' (J^ aJuill ol^rV«Jl 



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> f 

t>*-A> 'Oi** --J-^ oUiL) so^ill oljJdl o_^' jl -t *y -r 



jl Ui>^ *LL^ «;i>>Jl» iJ5 j^ J^ ^ ,jJIp ^ij^tj 
«c^ l;.jj,) J^^/l ^j^i ^UJi ^^ dUii ^j ,1^ ^_^| 

: J_^ 
J^'v^ J^^ ^.j-^ J^ •UpVi y.>; ^yn ^\ iJUJl oi] 
Ir^j ;i!5u- ijUp ^ 1^1 iLJU J^l Sj^^^ ^jL5cJ| j^| ^ 

j_^l ^ iJU-j ;i«^ iJUxJi j_^- 01 ^^_ ,^ . |^t_; si^ 
\yjy: 01 >j>il :^ jV Jl>Jl iJub i_^Lj V . . . ^<^ oJ^I J 

.j>kJl i>;>lil- ^1 \jLi:Jj ,j^\ 



(21) Nigel Calder, «The Life Game», P 96. 

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c;-**^.J ^ U^J ^ W*^^ LJJJU ^>i ^yuJaJl w^UiVl ol] 
J~2ij SjUJl ^_^ tU>^j U^ olJ^Jdl «^ iiiju 

.1^^ iJ^Ni ili ^ ,^\ ;,^ iuu- .__- u ^^ .j^^i 

'J-V ^^ ^^ ^-^^-^ ^ '^. \^M LaJ -ui. La ^ywiaJl ^U^^U 

^-^^ ^' jj-^' ^ jjji^ lA^jji jJi ai.^;i ^_^ i^ij 

'4-. ^ y"^ y^ jij^ ^ysJaJl w-'l^Vl ^.h: ,^.j . . . ] 

: (( JaI. j_,jc^ Jij^iijj y^\ w^U^*yi 



(22) Charles Darwin, "The Origin of SpecieS" p. 133 



J\ ^j JyJir \j.^ jU ili^p'^l JiJ^i^t J^ V*-^. -^] 

Uk^l jl L^j . ^^,*uJiJl w.lsicJ'^l Ux^l^ Jlj5ai oU-ji ^1 

j^ ^^>- ^ij ',H»^ *^i v r4 ^' iii>Ji >•>' i^~^ icA* 

iJiA jiJb "^j . *i>i ^.^-i;^' jJi ii j^Ji oUijJ-i J ;:^i jjtfi 

1. 4.~jb cJ^I J JciJbit ijciJ?^ ^Ldil Jl U IJJ^ jiaj>\ ^^ » \ \ 

J iJU;;'^! Jp-i>i ^J^:tS' jL^i J cJl^-. ^i ^L-Vi 

J I -jj^l kiJil_p- 4l>.,.L>. A>«-:o- viJ^ Ji ^^L ^;wJ ojL-- jb 
jwJ CJl5 J_pcJl Ol^ ;y 1}a J Lflj t JJLJl jUJb J*j«: SjL-. 

. i^oUl Jl *lll ^ *L3-Vl jrj^ J^ oLlS^J-l .Ia J5 
Lf«jLi; ^1 A>-Jii jl >-f5 ij j^ jLiS^ t_/5^l j^ ^>^J^j t(JL«J' 

. Ovi;l>- j_^J Ji*- Jl *^^ j J J»^' ^^ 

.(YrY-Yr\) .^. j,uijx^i(Yt) 
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j-« rjy^l»>* Ljb v-jai.1 IJiAj . . . oL»f vJJiA j\^ Jl i.Jj>^\j 
yfcf ?v-iail IJu ,:;yuj jl_^l IJub ^^_ ^_^JiJl ^ . ((i^Ul Jl *lll 

^jj tv-jai.1 IJLA Jl Jj^^ oj-iUl oljiaii-l Oi^- v_^ j»; 
j^ . -dJ i^^i i_)4^l j^^jj ijL?- SJ^;:5 J~/»U: JU- (^^^ ;!»>- 
Mil (.1 ?^*_^ ol> ^1 ^^1 jLsaiy^t ?:a>ii-l »Jub ^_ ^^JUi 

. ?*i>l ^1 
^- JJ ^1 J5LiIlj JJI^^I ^ ^L^-yi ^ i^Vl v_^ ^' 

l/»^' J '^JJ^^ ^J^ jy\Jsi\ oJlAj . iLkU /.UJl iaiLl *^ ^jIjcJ 
t JCuJijj ijj^ Soi pi. I_b>-I_5 \jjas- j\ jSi ^J^3- t s'Ac-l eLjv-jjl ^_$JiJl 

Ld*jj>-l (jlj lOj^ ooij aaJs>^I ^j-aIo jLsjij t j^iJLat ^x^^ Jl j' 
(Jy. (^lil ^y :t5>>-l »/• JLJj .4Jl.I5Jj ojjia: J ^'yi ju-L-j 
J^}J i-j-iUl j^.la:JL^^.L^Ijl JJ oL^^lj Ji\y^\j J5Liil 
(Jv«Uj l^....a. '. j^ /"ji; tUap'yi)) jL. J_^l L»l ^tUap'yi Ju J; ■,■■•.■:.] I 
• jia^ iSb S^ (j' Vf! *^ Jy J** «^^ Ice* S-^i-~ilj OjUdl /.UaJ 

0_^' vl'jiy-l «Jufc jl v_^.yJlj . oLJrl ol^ v_,--^- ^1 OjIj^I 
J.»^ ^u i:^ iljU- jl j»j* !!i:.^jc« iia;^ j.4>..^ iJ^ V^J 

Jl t5>^l «^la>- A»-^J tiiLJl 4j*jU-I Kjj>^ ^^JUl !((»JLiJl» 

11* ^;^iii^. liSOkj ! !v_iJLi,l_pj ^^1 0^ ^'LSai ^^j c^U'yi 
i*L- J5 J U-dl J 6yf: ti-UU ^y^l ^Uo'yi wu^ ^ ^-LSai 

.... !«a^f 4j ^_^ jl jjijl^j-JJ j^ 

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JliO^iUp Ji.%* oli jUlpf ;;^lji Jy: U^ ^- U^j J^f_, 

i$U-Jl ^^1 ^ ,^ J^i ^^u i^u Jl JUi,f ib^lj^ ^^Ul 
ol>^ ;ix^i j_p ^^j,_ ^ ji J_j^ ^_^| ^ ^1 ^ 

^L*JL Nl ^. -^^ ,^^ .'u^ ^^ jl^! L,l .(^L.>c ai Jl 
Jl i^ jl -o.i^i o_Jj- jL_'^l .l5iJl JjL«: ^_^l_, . ^jl5 Jl 
^\y^\ ,j^_ ^ <:ijj ^ J,^. ,,olJrl i-JUb, p-l Up jJLUI 

^j>^ ^^^1 j.yi.11 ^^jj i^.^Nl 5-X>ai oLVjJl J Uj^Jl^ 

: J^_j 

^ OV c^U."^' »-iA J J^l Sjjla^ Jl gli^ JjU <Uij 

o^ -*^~!J ' -k-^ o^j j^ sUj L.L.I ^^ jl t J.«::>«il j^j ^>5ULl 
(V^ ^ I^^L jLjNI .151)1 ^ l^ ^_,^i*i-l jJl jUJNl .Jla J5 

(25) Nigel Calder, «The Life Game-, P.172-173. 

-At- 



Jju l_^~o i ^^j_^l jli/jjjl;) SUj ^_yU jy jj^ ^ c-'^j^'-IJ ■ ^ ^ 

J_^ JjLJi y.i^l L™JI Jij . L$^ J~>«:^l IIa Jv- AjjLsi ^^ 
D^ ^^aJJ j'Vlj .^jj^^l 5^1 ^L. ^15 ^ .oLJ-l ol^wj-i 

oWl J:.a^L S;^ ijo^ ij\^ j^i>^ v^lj ^ JJ jl] 
-UjJ-lj ^jJi'id ^Jr*- J^ >^^ oyUaJl oIa jl .2j,jjSiiy\ 

J\;»-jj;Jlj j^jl53l ^ iUjc^l :>l_^l jLL* -L^_pi Jyiilj 

J_^™1 ii^l dLjL<^_ ^S^_ i (,f l^^'l ^L^li, _^liS jjjijs _j5 Uj_p 



IJUfc 



lD/v:^li•>b>^^'l oJU yv-^j jJU ^1 i?-U iJUb cuilS" Jlii jil 

<uU- jii^ij »-^-j -^j (."-Si ^j^ ju>Ji ijjj-J> (»L«i 4..-jt; 'Jjj''^ -^j 



,?8) Charles Datwin, <<The Origin of SpecieS". P 155 



-Ao 



iU (.jJl>- ^\ * — iJ ((^_,«^JaJl ^jU»i*yi)i r-l:^! U_Lp ^^j 
ti^j^l ly ((AS_UaJl» |_^l /»^jj ^b-'f (,«.'..wa.ll IJLa («--<»Ij) Ojjl.5 

: JjJL oJL>«J viiJJLI t l^-i*- <i}j ji^lj 

^ J-l J-^l Ul t jLJ'ill A*;U? ^1 t-^y. ^Ui J-*** oi] 

L • ^ 

j_^l IJla ^^_ «JL>»j ^AVl pU L^ ^\ ;JL-Jl Jj 

iJU«;u-lyb c^l i^j oLM J^ '^>»-^ (^-JJ' >>-Vl JJ-Olj] 

J«;«wJl 4w»U ^1 ^^1 iJLlS dUL*j j^Jdl oLJ'ill -o'li^^ 

vi-^iJl ^1 JaJfS <i^(.Aj^\ «i^ ^1 cj;^ UjUpj . *L*jJl 
c jLJ'^l .l^JJl ia-J JU ;i^i dULr ^1 ((Jj*^! UJI), ^ 
J^l)) c--::S' Ux* j^jJ Ly jlS" »L*i'i(l IJL» jli c ^il U ^j 

jjkj> *i\ ^\S J^ j^JI ^JUI jLJ*^! .I^JJI 1^1 J^^- jJl 



(29) Francis Darwin (Ed), <-The Autobiography of Charles Danivin and Selected Letters" 
P. 66. 

-An- 



"^ ((ijj^lii y, ^'uj_^l U>i^ <~_JL Ul . iLLJl 1^115^ J.yJ:,\ 

J--aiilj ^Ul J..<a^)) i,l5U^ JJuJi J jjjij ^_^ JLp j^ly_ 

: Iaj-UiJL 

iJlp ^%, ^/C^\ ^/yJjJl w_^UiVl Mlai^l 5jj-^l tXfj 
y ^y^ c SOiw »Uapl jJU-j ^ U ilp "i AJ\jJLt^ ^il_^ ^ 

JiJ jl ii;«pj C-*UiU-li c l^Uij ijJL>- ^Jai^j jj\J- UL^I 
'Up^ ^UiJ ^Uai-lj c jLi JO Jl jl ^ Jl ^Ijjj , Jb Jl 

OxJ oU'V ^Jj-yi ^ jb;ll i\^y -^[^ ^y ^ l^-^V .1* jL^j 

IjLaj (J-«-*j' L« '(j^J • Lf>~-I i_j8jw? t^Jl^j iijiJ-l ^ ^i^^slJI e-U 
V^*-*-! JJ^*^' ^^' t^^ flijJlj w-Jj~jJl «-^ ^ AJlil»l Jlijo jA 

h^ [ JjOPjj ^^JJl j,^^^ |y% j>. \yA>^i Ij^^ j^J^] 

1 Y i^,\A^ 



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(30) Nigel Calder. ..The Life Game», P 175 

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^^jlh^lj ^1 J[^; 



j_^kJl Aj__^ (^ . ^y<Jp j^Li ^'u,l ^1 jjj.i>j JJ^.^iS3lj ij^^l 

cjIj-^I ^^^ i^L_Jl ^_^l^^( ^y^ A4iLJl ?vL'^' >-'**^ J wi?- 
JjJi ia.j (.OP Ua:jPlj,j^^ ^^_^lll ^^j,^Ul ^ ^^"yi o'll. 

"'^' <Sy J '-iJ t "^^j^j-^'j ir^Lw" ^-^1 — -L) Jj t ijik:^ jl ^JJu- ._jl -L 

ol -Uj ivisL^ ti?L»j^l ^,^ J J_^l aj^^I oJla ijLj- J 'iu\ji, 
cIa jl jAj tO^^lj JjLi 2:^2^^'%. ^ j^j , ^jJjJ^I ol/l Jl oJ^ 

(.j^i 1^ oiAi^l . ,,jjLk^ N cl^lj .Lk^ ^/ (JUl jl, 



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^ (-g— jJl *l^l ^yt»j ^1^, "V J^ (. JU-I bj--a^ j ^j^ U Ij^i^ 

cL^^I .1^ ^ V:- (.b 1^ c (*L^I ^) ^jJ^ ^_^^. JL^ jilp 

iU- Ulj . Aj_^ iT—^' ^ jj^ jl Jb *>\j oil (, Aj^la'.ll bJLj- jj^ji 
Mlj^ijy JJ--- U jj^ jl ^_~^ ^ij^' «-^ Ol -Xioy Ls<ajl _^ tL»-^l 

J ^yjJ' J^ 4^Ua (»--aju *V t, JL«JI j^ ^y J ^L,,aI>-*Vl jl 
S^ Ul^l iJUj ; ^^1 ^i J -^'^\ jSi'^S jt. ^lijJl jl c QaiLl 

<.k_j_^ jvJk ^y. jl jj:>j i,!^ LUaiJl ^1 J SyU- S3^ '^' j 
J ,«i jJJl Ly-I j/:;^ jl «Jlil \i IJJ . v-LJl j^Ju'UaJ UJ ^ij 

*J(i:>jij" I, oJb J^ aLajI JuLii^ (J *l^ijJl ^_^J ^^1 jl iijii-l ,Jj 

iii/ol c~~J (. iijlj (»L$L>-lj oUjJlx^ Jlp a-;^^^ t Ails>l>- oU>-l. v .. " ..^^l Jl 

♦^ J' ((jlj-UL jLJii) *--lj CJ_^ *-o->»-^ C^Ua:...^l *>^iUJ . ojib 
^^1 . i_- v.;;yyj' oA? ^Juii jlj t JU-I iJj-^aP j Lft-UiJj JL«JI 'i-j:> 
oJLA Jlp ^_yi^^^ 0^ ^.5^-'—* '-^ (.j_^iaJl ^^ j>C- Jytsljil tl^ixJl 

^ ^_--aJI sIjjo jl_^I ^—i^j -Charles Dawson j-^jb ^^r^j^ v-*^ 
jlk, _^Jl ._.i>d.l Jl -S^Ui^b l]L-^ ox. j L^bt J-*^^ cjU'yi 
J ^_iii>j-« ,_c=r->Wr j-*L> " Smith Woodward ((ijjijj^lw»->-)) Jl j»^j 
i^ L^ i»iai J jl Jp ^ ajL %'li t ^l<Jr' 0^ (^ ^-"^ -._a:>«dl 



((jjjj^jj)) ^ ((j^jlj)) jiJi Ji, Jjb>. i»jJi jJLJ .ckiJI CJIS 
J\ :>j^ ^ oIa ^\^\ ^ jl ^ -^^ |JLp J>.j jl5 ^^JJI- 

JI ^j^ o\S ciUJi jl ^1 ._Ju: ^^JJI .^\j . oL-> l^j U.I 
(1 — ill j! ^j . jLJl ^^ v~* LT'.r^' ^' '"^bj"^'* V 
%y. ^1 tljj-50. jl5 i*jh,^l ^ iaJy_ ^j]\j ,^UUJ| j^ J-uaiil 
^^■'>*^' ^ J' ^>M ^^' '^ 0\S IJI l^ ;iyL>. ;jlSl.l ^JU 
.lUJl jl Ji^ l^^[ v.^jjijj))j ((^^jb» jl Vl tV ^1 LiL- UJL::SaLl 
, JJJ^ Jp iJ^Vl ;.U5 ^oJ Ul^l l^oy jl jjj c i*>^l vJlkJ :yo 

oly>>oil Jp J:jI>oNI o~;^I U-Lpj t oLJI i*j>,^j>«j byjl oi 
jf ^ tc5^l V>' oLJI_^ iJiUJlj tl^>c c.a V5I j_^l i^^Nl 

ucjU iIa jiSj ,i_ ^1 ;l'1^-J- jj ^u ^.>ji j^^i ia* 
Ai^U^ j>: jLji J[ Ai^j ,jjL: jcs- ijii\ jU jii . ^_Li)i j LjU 

(*-^^- lr!JJ "-j^ c5-^' -Sji!!)) iJ^j^ i— Jj:r^ ^-jLoJ J^ j-y^Vjl 

. (( jl il5 UojI 

Eoanthropus («— I ojjjjjj* ^jjj «j_^jli» jJl1»I 
<— JjNl JjJlS" \A jj (,^_^.yJl JjJUJkl IJla Jp dawsoni 



-^ • - 



. J-uJ 

jl *^l .obil^ SOP Jl J. j^lj ^'15 Jl :yL; *^ ,(.U«Jl ^ ^1 
. |.U- J^l-ij Jl«Jl JU-j tU?; ^j^ « JjlJcdj jLjl)) 

«Jai ^ > ^ ^ i^ ^ jl L. ^j . i.UiAJl j^ i_$^l «Jbi ^ 

^>- jl ^ .\^\ jiji j:^ , jjloiL J Jj^^l oL>L| ^^r 
y^ L. : jjL'L-dlj j_^5Xidl L.I tJUJi?- j^ v_-;:^ jl ^^ j^ladl 

C-ilL JL;-! JL*j Jli ((S'i*>.^l oiA ^yu ^UUJl llfc jl ^^ ^^^\ 

.iJlJul ^^''U-^yiJJI (>U*:yi (JLp) ^\y \^\ ^^\j .^\ 

(J-j i <1«^>«-; (.^lUJj .< ^■■■tf'tl IjJujIj (.((jjljcJli jLJI)) ^^^^ jJyCXi" 

^ o-__Px:-JlI (iUaAJl J^ dJLtJl y \^ iS^ ^-LaJL. ^jL*^ j^ (»Uf 

j_^.y.*^l |iUJl J>-J .j^lj JUJI ^^1 <-AJf- ^y ^/l.KJjI-dLjIl 

J Jl5^- ^iJl (^^ro->AoV) jj_^J,l Jjij j^ ^jj» jyir^^ 
i*j»wJ:-l JubLij > ^ Y ^ ^u- v-jUiII jIj jl U , tUi*^l I Ia j^ ^.IjJI 

« jjljdij jLJif) ^LLiS^I >_jL<»j ^ (,[ol>-ULl« alJU iu^JaJl jl] 
JJ U jLJI ipU ^1 J>-lj^ i->*:yi iiU J ^LL5I)) :a;L 



. ((~jLJl 



JJ j^ 4.<k>MJ;-l tJllJ <_»L1::5'I jl t jjij^^laJl ^v^ >■ Ji^ 



oLjI J il^^ » i,yLjl oV'iUllj Jly^Vl ^ j^ ^y Paleonthologia U-^y^JUl (r ^ ) 
on .Outos, ^oiJl : ^j Palaios j. ^jSj J^Vl v^yi i«J^l> - jijMl, JJ L. 



s\ 



j^- JlA)) iy. Juj^l Jy iJUi y'ljJl ^LiJl jl5 Aii tj_^l 

t ji — ;i i*^>.*^>y ((jji-cL ji ;!)) ui ((?ApUi pi Sfji jL-j'yi ,, ?- 

(v5Jlj . Mjl j^ t^JJlyfc jL-J^/l f-Ui jl ^y_ jl5 JJii oy vUUj 

: ^j-^^i ijjb J ( ^ ^rv- ^ Av • ) 

Jp-l^ JUP jLJ'^l J "ijl j>; ^^iJl •j^) y» ^UjJI jl 
J-»l^j j^ J-^ ^^^' *^^ j^'^ jLJ'ifl jlj t <JL«l^ 
t ^^j siAi 4JjJ>«j jLJ'ifl iJi* Jili:?-! j-« j.^^^* t **•*-•■> 
^1 J-<*J APUi jli ^5J^-S' i>-jJj (.-SjjiJl eilJl*-! (»■.... >it U-bj 
<Ll..,<a» j^ li^ jlS" jLJ'^l jli tj^^l Sj^^Jj t (jLJ'^l iS.^"^ 

,_ya*j j^^l jjj^ ^ij/ C->w^l KJjI-illjJ i*>*> J>>- 4/11*31 

a:— (^^tA-^AVY') . Franz Weidenreich «^^-^j>^y» 
. (/.UajJl eJL* vJLL:5l JA Ltji: Al^ Oy*)C -Uj (^1) > ^ t • 
,j^ AJ*^ . oly*i9«dl o^Uw> j^ I jjljdL jLJl» ^Jb- <_^] 

5iU-( obUi"^! ^ 4 sJl* 4^^ >....■„; j^.rll JUil IJl* ^ ^j 



(32) Stephen Jay Gould, «Smith Woodwards Folly, New Scientist (5 April 1979) P.44. 



Jl»-j A^JLw ^^JJl Ji^l Ltl LiJL. dLjJ iJ^ i^ jily 

Ijfjj « (jjl-dL oLJI)) ^ JyOljdl jl i>-ji ^1 iXjy JL?- ^_^l IJlA 
*5^1«i . i^l i*J?..<»JHu {j^\*J^ oL-JN ^ ^1) i^J^^J;-! oJlA Oj^IL 
_j obi IjJio «U.>mJ|-I eJlA f-L»i |«->«^ «— 'I — >*J •'■'jJ'lJJ t.L~*--'9 ^li 
fUjJl |«->«^ «— 'I — >■ <»1~5 yjl ^rw. iLpI e-U JL»«jj . r(»— \ • V • 

^. t^JJl ^^Ull jLJNl ^UjJ ^iNl -bLi Jl eU -L*^ 

«vi-*— 0^1 j^i^)) ^^ (^>>-i H>- j^j . r(«— > • • - > t • • 

JL-JNL 4.v<?liL| JJsUlI ,_yi«J i>iv»lj i)jl 4.«J>*.«J^I oJLft j ^^ AJl 
jl^l J\ -^^ J^J j^_ ol^ ^' . JjNl ._^l ,> J ^J^Ull 

:JIJI 
l»^|fJ;- aJLJ"^! ^\^\ w»yl ^ i«j»MJ^I oJlA jl yCt jl b-U] 
liA Ji4 ^j;J jl ijL>. ,y«-JaJl ^j c jVl ^^ Ikiz^S ijy»Jl 

.[dUl 






: J^ t^j^j ^iji <»jf*^ l^lt <«j>>w«j»;-' 

^Uip- ji 1^ "Supraorpital" jyjl ^^ Jy i^^^l 

^j_jj j «jlj_jNl iji if-jr ^Ua*' *r>~^ ((j^jljdb jLJiii <^»>- 

J Ux^lj ^^ ,jyjl Jy tyJl ji J^ V L* -«--?y J' ^^i *^^ 

. « jjljdb jLJI» i^fcj^^ f_j-^_j^ jJJLJL*^ l,-^ ^_^^^/L^I k'-^-J^ 

J^ jjiiJi ^jyi .I^L jUa. ^1 ^i^t J iuyUl oN'^LJl i-ljj 

jj^,^ j^^JUJL) »UaAJl -i^LdUal iiji?- JU- jjJLJjl i;^ J.<»:>Jj . liL- 
: ^ JUJiAj ^l]i«Jl J :>^_^l jjiiJi jlJii* jli vUUJJ ^jJl 
. ^UaAJl Lfj iyjdl ii >)' j Sji^^l ;_yi4)l i; — ' jlJli* ■ ^ 

br iJLli « jjlJlJLi jL-JI» ^Uic- J e:>^_^l j_yJUil <: — ^ J' J^ -^j 

.<tt) .^ j.Ut^A-«li(rt) 



. ILL-, jj-^ jl5 br^^ 

(4. ; . ' ....> J i 4.«J0 )/l) X 4jcJoL Laj»-^ OJL>-I_j te^r-r^ iiLnj -oxJl 1^ /•»«■ 
jj-<i*- j_^'! :»^ CJ15 jl i^U-j t^l AiJU (»UajiJl j*s- X^jJ- »Ja.: .7 

. iJU-l lJ^,_A*- ^ . . . I-L>- «^^y J^j 

-LLLx O- — ?- 1^- ^_^ }. «^l ojjfc jl ?t.^l_j (.LfJL^ «ij:>-^l ^«^l 

tk_ — >J IJufc ^^j . Ijjj- i^U jUjI ^1 jjjo' Lji-lj cL^*>U ^LJa-vs-l 

(•^"^J 'OjMkJjLi O^,,^ '—'■'j^ viiiJi *-Lf- ^ i--jy«il jL--Vl jl ,_7^ \j 



l^ coL5:j c ^^or <^ jWi -. jl: j i>yjJi c-JU^i i^ij 






C5^'^. 



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[U *jaj ^jU J5li *Uaplj -u^^ 2^ jUM OIjlp-N 

;JLJb Jl sUi ((jjlJuL jL-jl)) Jyi ^.^-^1 '-^ -^ 

Ji. ciLJLSJl ^-xp ^_^- .-i^ : J. ^^iJLiLlj^^^l lit: f^ ci-^' ^r- 
, A. !>. JJ^ lil iiU ^. ^ SI ?i- Oyvjl Jl> ^1^1 ySS^"^ 1-^ 
^ Jikll |.UJI Jl5U j'y dUi .i*.>^l .iUJ :yo .iUll Jl Ow 
*jlp jI ot*A- iiyd iJlSUl lj\ dUJu c-iiU t Ijj-i^ 'd^ i*>«^l 
j^aii- ^*^l ^^t Aii JJUi Jip Sj^j . i-^-Jr' (^ ^^' ^'^ 
J» ^^^ il .j-i^lj -^.^^ ^^>L-: oJlS ci^ JI'^^ :>^j >^ 
^IjLiLl U*i:- ^zJitS ji\ oJJl cUpI j^I y.j- . ((iij^ ^j/ 

asUj i^.Jii fi^i ji^t*^ ei^i :UjUli ou^ siJi^ Ail] 

^j ii> jU coL^Nl ^ ^y^ i^^l^l >"^l Jl ^^1 
J JL«. 1^ o-^j o^j VI ^ c^r ^' ^^ ^^' ^ '^^'^^ °"^ 

J ((jjlJdb jLJl)) Ijtj jiJJl c,.rw»U2::p^Nl jL^Nl ^li»t Jl /i 
f'\j3~\ jUl ^ olk:-"^ ajI Ij^Jii |ij I jw^' ti^ Ij^^. |i i^4>»::il 

(i'^) -cT^- ^>— 1' J-*-^' C^") 

(36) Kenneth Oaklen, ..Suspicious about Piltdown Man-, New Scientist (21 June 1979), 
P1014 



^1 



bUj. < aJu j-ljji-lj^^l iJL** t.\jj 015 ^_$JlII j» : i-^JL Ul 
. U.^ ^ ^^\ ^ ,ij^ 0*^1^1 C..L.... aii ?L^ o^yJ' jl^ 
aJL jj^l Jlij ui^j-^^jlj ^jL?-)) ^1 (»lrNl Ar<*L; (j«a*Jl jLili 

: ^-L 1^ 0.15 ^_^l 10^ o.jjl ^1 v-=J^I 

. jL»j l^ I>- ^1 cJLiil jj ajIjJI j o-y 
^j-^jx J y.j^l ^LL:5I ^ jy ^j tLiil j>. j^^U 
^yJl j A^\ ^Lf OjJ^ ^'jlJ-l oJu Jl^' !>\i t« JjlAd; jL-Jl)) 

tj^LJl jl ^j (,iijy>j> ia_i?- -U- frj-Ail cJa.L^ «jjl_uij jl—Jb 

^^.k:..'....]^ ttkUJ OjJ>j^ -y.j^'^^ lT-^' '^^ ^^ ^ (*r^~ 
diJi ^-i^ jl iooil ry. ^ r^ tia~~; Jj^j H-^ <<-iJ^ Jc^ 
^p\j ^\^\ j^\ ^l-A^ ,>5C*il j^ dJUJ5 tiillj 0IX--J i^^J^I 
<-e.9^ i?Lio /»lJ jJlc- -Ip Jli^iil jj5^ jl -^j--^ jr^J ■ '-^r^ 



^V 



'y 



J^ ^-Jj c JjJl Olj>^ Js, SjU ^_ pUJi ^f^l jl 

c-ii^ ^^ c._^lj o^Uilj ^i>.^i J i^'i^ f^ ^^^ . ^'0^ 
U^. jL oij . ;:^ ^jl^ oJLli ^i^ ^ ^f^ . iiJL^J,! oULt:;S-'^ 
*l^l .^. jl ^^_ -^1,, :^'ii ^^^^ ^ ^^ ^.^1 j^, 

-^^1 ci-iJi JJ^*^i ^UJI u,j^lj o ^,.^„ ^1:5 ^ J^i 

AiU,l Jl j^^'Vl .1^1 L^^_ jLJ sji -^j ^_^_^ J^ [^^^ 
: J^>ULl L;^^ oULL^I ^I ^ lo ^Ll:5L c^l jj 

J- jj_.L;VjiJji^,i^i^i_^is-^,^^ji^ cji_i:5Ltdi 

oOiiUl oOiUl ;pLiJl ^^ Jpj ^u.| j^Ll JU jUb^l 
Jaii 1^ ^1 jUj ^ 1^ j^ jl3 ^ Vi^waJl jL^Vl Jp 
V^I_Jl^ .^^^ J, c^^JiJl^^j_^^ jiVl,_,2_-J, 

[ J*V (^ J^J 0^. jl ^jJktU-i V IJIA ^^.^_ jl ^,h- ., 

cOJUl ili^p-^l x^ ^^ jl L> ^ -^ L* ^j 

^ Jlc^l Jl jy^ jl Ji^ l^lj , jJUJi jU-j jLi ^ O^ 

[Sj -^loLJlt^t^ ,^l^l^ia^j^^^^_,l ^,|^| 

(37) James D. Watson. «The Double Helix» P 24 



.jlijJlj *L.JiJii\j ^cJiJl y>j pjfc ^^ Jjjl JU-j 

^.j^ j^ -^j ^j^ ^ c-^" J'-^y j^^' i.^ ji 

•A^j JlS" jl c j_^l jl ^y<~JaJl ^^, . . L'L- [jjS . . . AiJUaJl 

iL«Jl li> Jl^ ^ ^oilj i,'^\ j jSiicl} Jji ":Ai jjl c^ojk 
._^U (._^_ ^^ _j^>JJ jjl ;;>.U Nj c jL-j^yi jJU- ^j , ,,o'l__jl 

(*-* Oyjaiji-ft-^^ (,Ai)U- i-Jyci jLjlS ^_;i^l '"^J J — ' ^J^ ^ 

cAjt*i:f cU»j ,_ — S Ji\ jL^^yi ^l::^: (.ti^l i^*-^ ^^r* 
dU-U . L^>jj <-l ^1^1 Jl ^bJ.1 JikJl Jl. dUi J Ai!U 
jl ((A^aiJl)) jl fBj^\j>\.\)) f^V, aJI *Jij U 15 J-a-. ol J LjU 

j^^l i;^ j_^' UAXtj to'-^li' ^-i'-^J J?i^ OjJ U( JL«J|)) 

jj^^lj^yxiJl ^_^ ^ Oj*: jl ^_ycJaJl j^ (.U ia<jt J ((Av'_^)i 
. jjJalll AjJiJ JUajl ^ LLj aJISj A_«iJ ^^iij Ux^ 



^^ 



A;»-U-l jj:> «LJ-Ij j_^l j2-~io ALiJl iJjl^yk t. iL^j j\j^\jj <.Ja\S 

^ .^ cj>i!i :l>; ji >Ji ^"^i ^ jii ijj , ju Ji 

iyLS" Jl iA>-lj S^ jl iijii-lj . iii: . Aj^;ir ^j-Jj «, i;iU.I <»IpJl!I 

^1 ^iVi jUii ^ ciJ^Vi ^Liiii ^_^-i j>i!i ;.>; ^- -\ 

. '<i)a:^\ oJla Ax-^ fJJw JJJIJ Jj^ ^>« J^ ^/Ij*- 
oii ^y^l ^yriwllli ij\yjy\ ^}ij^ JJ^^ ^^ (^r^ ~^ 

-> . .- 



..-^U^ ,.^,^>^^ Vl^ ^^^ >j> ii>Jl ^^ JJ 

^1 i!.^/i ;^u j^ .^li ^1 J j^^. ^^1 „^.^,^^ ^j^ ^ ^;^i 

^> J ^ ^,-^^ ^-K,'! jli ,;.UJI J JULI yk 1^ -0 

0^ > ow: -ill .:_J syilji ^^^,50^^ ^^. ^1 

'r*^' i-v ^^>- ^ oiji! j.jij 

^ yc^ .oL^^I ,ai [j.,\^SJj [M\^^\j ol^UJjl ^^. -T 

?^ pl ii^ J.^_ ji j^_ j[s 1^1 1^^ 

. vli^ JJii\ oyyu cVjA J U^l j^ 



SJb-j <IjJJli i.Uji3l v._^Lstf JA>«J ti?- ^'ly Ji<r tli-u -owijj 

oJl5 lil 1^ J*L-:J jl Li- j^ ^t ca'jUl i»UJl ^^ Js-j 
jl ^3i jl Ji^l ^^:...> '^ il . ^^iUi 3^1^ jl ^ >l^ L-jl^ 
t jjjii ,_$lj ^Iji t^_^ (^1 ,_r-ij-^ (*^ (^1 4-<kJxJl \:S\ — ^y 
;Jil ^\yc^\ <r^y^. ^y«JL*Jl Jli-li . ^y^f■ iU>^ 1^' ol — -> 

oLil^i jl ^ ^ '^j A-: '^ j3l ;J:>'yi >ycu-; 'y jl ^.>Ji ^ 
-;_^ Jll-I (.Okp .gip l^ Jli jilj c>j3p ;i>l JJ ^ o^ Lfrl5 

jJl) jjjb aj^ (►^-'^j tSJi9-lj ii*>v ^jl^l ^y»^^~J Y> ^ (^' 

;iiLi ^ vis-j (^jji^ jji ili'yi ^ijj <::^' c^ ^'»^ -i> Ji>' '^ 
J v4*Ji ^' — ->' »-J^ J^ c^' '^^ -^^ Cf->^- 1}*-^ ^»-^>-jJi 

! J> ^ Jlp oUa->J.I (JlL* |.jy. y> i)U^l5 



> 'Y- 



tj^ ..>A r -jg- jAjalll 4jjJaJ)>tjtJ L» 



I. eUJ-l jA.»-iJ ^-*J ^j^ ^'^ (1;^-*^ *^ f ^ ty^y '"^-^ ' ^^~^ '-^-' 
i-p|j_)Jl Sj^il 7-Li;( jl j|u-ji; j^^kJl ij^ «..Ja.:.....7 N *At*i 

oli tU^i J--- jJl (((iljjNl i^islj J^l» L^SOi jJl- tiJLAjil 



^•r 



Oii^ ^ SjL^I oIa .i_:5I 1^1 , J^l jL cU^^I ;.JaJl cJjU 
IALj c^y^JaJl ^U^*yi oLLpj ,IX,.U, olyilp ;>»^_, ,^^^1 

ol^l oIa iU, ^;^| Oil i^i oii, ^^- .45 U ^y ji 

^ jl L- ci^^l jl ^ ^^ ^^\ i,^ ^.la:...j Y, 
^^' cijjj Ui^ ^ Jj^^lj J^^i J_,U ^^ 5U.I j^ ^^ 

Jy. J^l iUJi ^^^L:^- ,_i5 ^wi; ^i^l oJla ^,L:.>J N 1^ 
^ i^LiLl l^U*j_, l^ljLiL ^^Ja:;^- ,_i^j 9U ^jj^_,| ^ ^ 

J c;^^j c JikJl jl ._i5 ^wi: ;.^| oJLa ■ U- : Ja (.1 

! ! <A~^I ^,A<u ^ij t ^jjjl 

ji\ Jl^Nl J *U^I Ol^^ jy^ i,>Jl oJla ^>- : V l^ 

.^I^NI olS ^"^1 J .1^1 o^ i^^^i ^Qijji ^^LiiLi 

H^t Jl S^l |J ,^|_, ol^ J ^^1 ^^_^, ^^ 

ii\ j^ (^Jaiw- "^ j_^i ;,ji:) ^_,| j^^ j^^ .U->^| 




._^_^H t.\^V, j-j^^Z QU L^j c jl jlUI oIa j >Jl_JI .LJiiJ 
JSLi Jk^j L^ ^-1 ^1 JlAJJl Jl J-^y WU .LJJI ^l^^lj 

. ! L> ^ ■ .. a" |>P ;j>-U- j_^laJl ijjliJ 

((^l^)) ^ik^ J ^/^ -Manx Shearwater Puffinus Puffinus- ^ ^ 
Jbr^. N ^1 c'sA^d.! oLN^I Jl S/'lWL oJLij Ji^L^ J c IS\^\^, 

^ j^ c 5^05:^1 J J^NI 4%. Jl Jj-^^lj ^^\ V^l 



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oj^l ^.ii^Vl ^1^1 ^ jl ui-S ^wi; j>di i>: ^. U: . ; ^^j 

U . ili-^/l ciA Ji« :jIjOo" j *K ^1 ^^ ^;^. J. '^j-^^' 
' '^'^' c^ ^^'^l Ovi!>U Ov. 5i^_^l c aAJilj Sja*dl oljl^ll oJUk 

t Ul_^ kg-J\j Jl^l juUL* ^UI -^^I U,U -cUJLi. jj- -u-l^ 
.-^1^ IIaj . ^^'i/l ^iJbUl 4;l5a.j <..^UIj oy^LlL. Ju^ jlj 

: Jjii dilJb t-i^;uu jjkj mJI lj^;kil 



:JiJljJloUUJ 
^^^' Jl ^M ^y-l *LJii JU jl iJlJL;i ^jt c^\^! 

V^ J .^X^- ^l| ;;JLJl y.LU. ^_^«JJ| ^U^^i ^ lii 

^Ltil oi* Jl ;;.l^| j^, c^V^ ^;Loo jl jL.^1 jl5:,L 
cj>ili ;.^ ji^i ^^^ ^1 jL^vi jU ,^i ^ ^Vij 

J^ cioJlj ,<JI^| iJt ^ ^jjc] jU-i^l ^i^j c^.Ip^I J^I 

l^Uj 1^1^ ^^.^^\j]jyyj>]\ ^ ^ ^jj|_, . ^^^1 ^^ JJ ^ 



(38) Francis Darwin (Ed) , <• The Autobiography of Charles Darurin and Selected Letters.. 
P65 



\ .V 



i>j ^, 3j ^pial^. N cj>Jl i,>J d\ji\ ^y^. ^1 OL-NI Ol 

^J ^H\ OL*- ft»^JjytJLj ^^J t << ?-jA> ^J t aJ O^'j Ajt^j 4i]L>- v.,.^ 

^Si\ JJJ\j OLi-Nl y^LU. aJI A^yj jaJ^^\j} ,^j.^\^^\j 
jl ^Ijp ^^l ^ ^jjjt oLJ'yi IJLa Jl- OU c^i J^ ^y ^jVIj 






->«A- 



J 5j^l v-^l ^L. j JI^JI IJlA <^\y: jp vi^lj tjy 
Xi-II- Ujlp |»J^I f^ "J*^ ^^ '-ix^ ^y>*^. ^^^*^) cL— jlJi. 

<4-ijj 4....jfl,jj t«JL«^j yipj l^ jLj'yi jOu -j_^IaJl 4.a. li JLp 

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j^l — A\ 



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